Экономические результаты и просчеты при объединении Германии

Тема
[-]
Экономические результаты и просчеты при объединении Германии  

Прошло немногим более 20 лет с момента объединения Германии. Открытие в конце 1989 г. государственной границы между ГДР и ФРГ (символизированное началом разрушения стены, построенной в 1961 г. между Восточным и Западным Берлином), введение в середине 1990 г. на территории ГДР западногерманской марки, а с октября 1990 г. – и большинства законов ФРГ вызвали в экономике Восточной Германии сильнейший шок, названный в печати «синдромом “Титаника”».

Восточногерманская экономика «пошла ко дну», не будучи в состоянии конкурировать с товарами, ввозимыми из Западной Германии и других стран с рыночной экономикой. Усугубили тяжесть ситуации развал системы взаимной торговли стран, входивших, как и ГДР, в Совет Экономической Взаимопомощи, и резкое сокращение их платежеспособности. Стала быстро расти отсутствовавшая прежде в ГДР безработица.

Социально-экономические изменения в народном хозяйстве Восточной Германии

Экономика бывшей ГДР была в основном государственной: в промышленности главную роль играли комбинаты центрального и регионального подчинения, которые производили более 90% всей товарной продукции и концентрировали около 90% научно-исследовательского потенциала; в сельском хозяйстве – сельскохозяйственные кооперативы и государственные «народные имения», которые сосредотачивали более 90% всех сельскохозяйственных земель, более 90% поголовья скота и производили более 90% всей сельскохозяйственной продукции; в торговле – государственные торговые организации, которые полностью господствовали в оптовой и внешней торговле и вместе с предприятиями потребительской кооперации обеспечивали около 90% всего розничного товарооборота.

Разгосударствление, которое стало главным направлением социально-экономической перестройки хозяйства в новых землях, было в основном завершено еще в первой половине 90-х годов. Ключевые позиции в промышленности заняли западногерманские фирмы, приватизировавшие прежние государственные предприятия; около 10–11% предприятий приобрели иностранные фирмы. В результате уже к началу 1998 г. половина персонала восточногерманской промышленности работала на предприятиях, принадлежащих западногерманским и иностранным фирмам. Доминирующую роль в торговле также стали играть торговые концерны, базирующиеся в западных землях. В сельском хозяйстве возникло много фермерских хозяйств, но основная часть земли осталась у кооперативных хозяйств, уменьшившихся в размерах и изменивших свой правовой статус.

Крупные социально-экономические изменения не сопровождались, однако, соответствующим ростом занятости. Наоборот, даже в те годы, когда в Восточной Германии отмечался хозяйственный рост, в то же время наблюдался рост числа безработных и сокращение числа занятых. За 20-летний период общее число занятых в экономике Восточной Германии сократилось с 9,86 до 6,76 млн человек, а число только лишь официально зарегистрированных безработных возросло с нуля до 1,13 млн человек. В течение последних десяти лет уровень безработицы в восточных федеральных землях остается в два раза выше, чем в западных, и на сегодня положение сохраняется на том же уровне (14,8% против 7,1%). При этом еще не берется в расчет, что примерно 4% жителей восточных земель (около 300 тысяч человек) ездят на работу в западные земли.   

Сегодня в промышленности в относительно более благоприятном положении находятся отрасли и производства, работающие на рынок самой Восточной Германии, особенно производства стройматериалов, продовольственных товаров, табачных изделий и др. Конечно, постепенно восточногерманская продукция стала выходить и на рынок западногерманских земель, особенно у предприятий, входящих в структуры фирм, базирующихся в ФРГ, что свидетельствует о развитии процессов территориального разделения труда на внутрифирменной основе. Однако, к сожалению, до сих пор Восточная Германия почти всегда представляется исключительно рынком сбыта для западногерманских предприятий, а не местом производства в общегерманской экономике.

Конечно, в условиях конкуренции на внутреннем и мировом рынке терпят крах не только нерентабельные предприятия. Под угрозой гибели находятся или уже ликвидируются и вполне конкурентоспособные. Но в Восточной Германии они и прежде разрушались вполне целенаправленно – как потенциальные конкуренты западногерманской промышленности. Если административно-командная экономика «реального социализма» не успела до конца разрушить экономический потенциал ГДР, то затем это довершила беспощадная конкуренция и, не в последнюю очередь, жесткая политика опекунского управления, которое явно видело свою задачу не в разумном сочетании оздоровления и приватизации, а в выгодном присвоении западногерманским капиталом бывшего общественного сектора ГДР.

Конкретных примеров тому много: достаточно назвать лишь такие отрасли, как оптическая промышленность с заводами Цейса в Йене, производство типографских станков, судостроение, большая часть текстильной промышленности, производство мебели и другие, которые и до воссоединения страны зарекомендовали себя по качеству своей продукции как вполне конкурентоспособные, в том числе и в прежней ФРГ. Вследствие западногерманской стратегии завоевания рынка восточногерманская промышленность утратила не только значительную часть внутреннего, но и большую часть своего традиционного внешнего рынка. И это несмотря на то, что федеральное правительство ежегодно направляет в восточные земли крупные средства (более одного триллиона евро за 20 лет) на преодоление последствий в экологии, промышленности, жилищном строительстве, связанных с политическим разделом страны. В этих целях с 1991 года с немецких налогоплательщиков взимают «налог на солидарность» в размере 5,5% от доходов, по которому в среднем ежегодно набегает сумма в 10 млрд евро.

Экономические и социальные последствия объединения страны

Благодаря финансовым вливаниям сегодня на востоке страны стали быстро развиваться производство продуктов питания, металлообработка, машино- и автомобилестроение, химическая и электротехническая отрасли. Да и в структурном отношении экономика новых земель последние 10 лет характеризуется существенным прогрессом. Доля зависящих от оборота государственных и частных услуг по созданию брутто-добавленной стоимости растет в промышленном секторе. Такие земли, как Саксония, Тюрингия и Саксония-Ангальт, вновь превращаются в индустриальные. В целом можно говорить о создании фундамента, на котором новые земли с государственной финансовой помощью на основе пакта солидарности могут осуществлять самостоятельное экономическое  развитие.

Огромная экономическая помощь государства инициировала в новых землях строительный бум, но, тем не менее, их экономический рост в целом постоянно ниже западных земель. Наряду с промышленностью особое значение для развития экономики восточных земель имеют услуги предпринимательского характера, в т.ч. и такие, как финансовые и сдача помещений внаем и аренду. Уже в 2000 году в этой сфере экономики восточных земель был достигнут уровень влияния этих услуг на  создание добавленной стоимости, составляющий две трети от такого уровня в западных землях.

Однако большой недостаток экономики восточных земель – это неразвитость высокотехнологических производственных и информационно-технологических отраслей, что является причиной низкой ее эффективности. В целом в этих отраслях в восточных землях работает почти в 1,5 раза меньше наемных работников, чем в западных землях (21,6% против 31,0%).

Многие на востоке и западе страны отнеслись к 20-летию воссоединения страны со смешанными чувствами. Надежды, которые жители бывшей ГДР связывали с падением Берлинской стены, так и не сбылись. Они по-прежнему опасаются за свое будущее и будущее своих детей в объединенной Германии. Если зарплата жителей западных земель Германии с 2002 года в среднем увеличилась на 11%, то в восточных землях она за тот же период снизились на 10%. По данным федерального статистического ведомства, доходы работников в западных землях на 30% выше заработков их восточных коллег. Восточные немцы убеждены, что их эксплуатируют, предварительно целенаправленно уничтожив экономику бывшей ГДР. «Любая угроза конкуренции со стороны предприятий из новых федеральных земель была подавлена в корне, – полагает председатель фракции оппозиционной Левой партии (ЛП) в бундестаге Грегор Гизи. – В результате западные услуги и товары хлынули на восток и заполнили полки всех магазинов, не оставив места для продукции восточногерманских фирм».

Не внушают оптимизма участникам опроса и прогнозы Немецкого института экономических исследований, согласно которым в восточных землях увеличится число бедных в среде пенсионеров. Причины пессимизма кроются в относительно низких темпах экономического роста и высокой безработице на востоке страны, где безработица вдвое выше, чем на западе. Это обстоятельство является причиной оттока населения в западные регионы, в основном молодежи, что ведет к катастрофическому обветшанию деревень. По прогнозам официальной статистики, к 2025 году население пяти восточных земель сократится с нынешних 13,1 млн (без учета населения г. Берлина, которое составляет 3,4 млн чел.) до 11,5 млн человек.

Канцлер ФРГ Ангела Меркель согласна с тем, что восточные немцы вопреки обещаниям так и не достигли уровня жизни жителей западных федеральных земель. В этой связи она отметила необходимость содействовать экономическому подъему в новых федеральных землях, нормализации ситуации на рынке труда, преодолению бюрократии. По мнению федерального канцлера, восточные земли ФРГ еще 15–20 лет будут зависеть от финансовой помощи и не смогут достичь уровня жизни, подобного тому, который утвердился в западных федеральных землях. Вот почему западные и восточные немцы проявляют завидное единство мнений в оценке значимости факта объединения Германии: и те и другие считают, что объединение страны принесло им больше потерь, чем выгод. Западные немцы недовольны тем, что приходится платить «налог солидарности», который направляется на развитие восточных земель. А на востоке люди не в восторге от того, что уровень безработицы на территории бывшей ГДР почти вдвое выше, чем на западе. К тому же почти 20 лет спустя после объединения страны должностные оклады, тарифные ставки и пенсии на востоке значительно отстают от западного уровня. А федеральное правительство отказывается от их выравнивания на том основании, что это пока невозможно обеспечить экономически.

Толстоног Веньямин


Дата публикации: 14.09.2011
Добавил: ava  oxana.sher
Просмотров: 2672
Комментарии
[-]
ava
No nick | 22.08.2013, 12:20 #
Хреново им там...
 rokot | 22.08.2013, 15:01 #
Если жизнь в Германии херня, найди слово для жизни у нас в России.
ava
VEGA | 30.01.2021, 05:17 #
How-to articles is   
123vega an article aimed at educating about the   
red tiger method procedure and advice on
pragmatic play the subject any matter
jili slot how the process of doing something that is
kingmaker beneficial to the target group in life.
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 16:11 #
Great job here on _______ I read a lot of blog posts, but I never heard a topic like this. I Love this topic you made about the blogger's bucket list. Very resourceful.    Aluminium ramen en deuren
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 16:24 #
An interesting dialogue is price comment. I feel that it is best to write more on this matter, it may not be a taboo topic however usually individuals are not enough to talk on such topics. To the next. Cheers.    Ramen Leuven
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 16:28 #
A great content material as well as great layout. Your website deserves all of the positive feedback it’s been getting. I will be back soon for further quality contents.    PVC ramen deuren
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 16:34 #
I’ve read some good stuff here. Definitely worth bookmarking for revisiting. I surprise how much effort you put to create such a great informative website.    Kapper zonder afspraak Hasselt
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 16:48 #
 Your articles are inventive. I am looking forward to reading the plethora of articles that you have linked here. Thumbs up!    Houten ramen en deuren
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 16:51 #
Thanks a lot for sharing this excellent info! I am looking forward to seeing more posts by you as soon as possible! I have judged that you do not compromise on quality.    SEO bureau
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 16:54 #
I know this is one of the most meaningful information for me. And I'm animated reading your article. But should remark on some general things, the website style is perfect; the articles are great. Thanks for the ton of tangible and attainable help.    Nieuwe ramen
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 16:58 #
Its a great pleasure reading your post.Its full of information I am looking for and I love to post a comment that "The content of your post is awesome" Great work.    Vakantiehuis Limburg
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 17:01 #
This particular papers fabulous, and My spouse and i enjoy each of the perform that you have placed into this. I’m sure that you will be making a really useful place. I has been additionally pleased. Good perform!    Professionele website
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 17:05 #
I admire this article for the well-researched content and excellent wording. I got so involved in this material that I couldn’t stop reading. I am impressed with your work and skill. Thank you so much.    Vakantiewoning België
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:01 #
I have a hard time describing my thoughts on content, but I really felt I should here.  Your article is really great.  I like the way you wrote this information.    Vloer isoleren
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:04 #
Positive site, where did u come up with the information on this posting?I have read a few of the articles on your website now, and I really like your style. Thanks a million and please keep up the effective work.    Vakantiehuis huren
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:08 #
There is so much in this article that I would never have thought of on my own.  Your content gives readers things to think about in an interesting way.  Thank you for your clear information.    Ramen  Aarschot
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:12 #
I am thankful to you for sharing this plethora of useful information. I found this resource utmost beneficial for me. Thanks a lot for hard work.    Definitief ontharen
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:15 #
Thank you so much as you have been willing to share information with us. We will forever admire all you have done here because you have made my work as easy as ABC.    Ramen  Bierbeek
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:18 #
Thank you for another great article. Where else could anyone get that kind of information in such a perfect way of writing? I have a presentation next week, and I am on the look for such information.    Prijs laserontharing
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:21 #
 You delivered such an impressive piece to read, giving every subject enlightenment for us to gain information. Thanks for sharing such information with us due to which my several concepts have been cleared.    Ramen Boortmeerbeek
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:24 #
 Thanks for the blog filled with so many information. Stopping by your blog helped me to get what I was looking for. Now my task has become as easy as ABC.    Definitief ontharen
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:27 #
Thank you a bunch for sharing this with all of us you actually realize what you are talking about! Bookmarked. Please also seek advice from my site =). We could have a hyperlink change contract between us!    Ramen Boutersem
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:31 #
Fabulous post, you have denoted out some fantastic points, I likewise think this s a very wonderful website. I will visit again for more quality contents and also, recommend this site to all. Thanks.    Ramen en deuren Boutersem
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:33 #
You made such an interesting piece to read, giving every subject enlightenment for us to gain knowledge. Thanks for sharing the such information with us to read this...    Ramen Haasrode
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:36 #
Superior post, keep up with this exceptional work. It's nice to know that this topic is being also covered on this web site so cheers for taking the time to discuss this! Thanks again and again!    Ramen en deuren Kampenhout
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:39 #
I was reading your article and wondered if you had considered creating an ebook on this subject.  Your writing would sell it fast.  You have a lot of writing talent.    Ramen Herent
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:42 #
We have sell some products of different custom boxes.it is very useful and very low price please visits this site thanks and please share this post with your friends.    Erotische massages
ava
Digital_Zone | 15.10.2021, 20:46 #
Wow, cool post. I'd like to write like this too - taking time and real hard work to make a great article... but I put things off too much and never seem to get started. Thanks though.    Ramen Heverlee
ava
Digital_Zone | 14.11.2021, 15:00 #
Efficiently written information. It will be profitable to anybody who utilizes it, counting me. Keep up the good work. For certain I will review out more posts day in and day out.    토토사이트
ava
Digital_Zone | 14.11.2021, 15:08 #
 Pretty good post. I have just stumbled upon your blog and enjoyed reading your blog posts very much. I am looking for new posts to get more precious info. Big thanks for the useful info.    스포츠토토
ava
Digital_Zone | 14.11.2021, 15:12 #
Wow, cool post. I’d like to write like this too – taking time and real hard work to make a great article… but I put things off too much and never seem to get started. Thanks though.    먹튀검증
ava
Digital_Zone | 14.11.2021, 15:17 #
Succeed! It could be one of the most useful blogs we have ever come across on the subject. Excellent info! I’m also an expert in this topic so I can understand your effort very well. Thanks for the huge help.    온라인바둑이
ava
Digital_Zone | 14.11.2021, 15:21 #
I visit your blog regularly and recommend it to all of those who wanted to enhance their knowledge with ease. The style of writing is excellent and also the content is top-notch.  Thanks for that shrewdness you provide the readers!    먹튀사이트
ava
Digital_Zone | 14.11.2021, 15:26 #
I haven’t any word to appreciate this post.....Really i am impressed from this post....the person who create this post it was a great human..thanks for shared this with us.    먹튀검증
ava
Digital_Zone | 14.11.2021, 15:31 #
Efficiently written information. It will be profitable to anybody who utilizes it, counting me. Keep up the good work. For certain I will review out more posts day in and day out.    토토커뮤니티
ava
Digital_Zone | 30.12.2021, 01:00 #
Took me time to read all the comments, but I really enjoyed the article. It proved to be Very helpful to me and I am sure to all the commenters here! It’s always nice when you can not only be informed, but also entertained!    best minecraft servers
ava
Digital_Zone | 08.01.2022, 16:33 #
I can’t believe focusing long enough to research; much less write this kind of article. You’ve outdone yourself with this material without a doubt. It is one of the greatest contents.    먹튀검증
ava
Digital_Zone | 08.01.2022, 16:56 #
I have a hard time describing my thoughts on content, but I really felt I should here.  Your article is really great.  I like the way you wrote this information.    먹튀폴리스
ava
Digital_Zone | 08.01.2022, 17:03 #
Thanks for picking out the time to discuss this, I feel great about it and love studying more on this topic. It is extremely helpful for me. Thanks for such a valuable help again.    토토사이트
ava
Digital_Zone | 08.01.2022, 17:08 #
Thanks for posting this info. I just want to let you know that I just check out your site and I find it very interesting and informative. I can't wait to read lots of your posts.    토토사이트
ava
Digital_Zone | 08.01.2022, 17:13 #
Thanks for an interesting blog. What else may I get that sort of info written in such a perfect approach? I have an undertaking that I am just now operating on, and I have been on the lookout for such info.    먹튀검증
ava
Digital_Zone | 08.01.2022, 17:18 #
You have a real talent for writing unique content.  I like how you think and the way you express your views in this article.  I am impressed by your writing style a lot. Thanks for making my experience more beautiful.    안전놀이터
ava
Digital_Zone | 16.02.2022, 16:01 #
Thank you because you have been willing to share information with us. we will always appreciate all you have done here because I know you are very concerned with our.    메이저사이트
ava
Digital_Zone | 16.02.2022, 16:09 #
Thanks for an interesting blog. What else may I get that sort of info written in such a perfect approach? I have an undertaking that I am just now operating on, and I have been on the lookout for such info.    안전놀이터
ava
Digital_Zone | 16.02.2022, 16:14 #
I am impressed. I don't think Ive met anyone who knows as much about this subject as you do. You are truly well informed and very intelligent. You wrote something that people could understand and made the subject intriguing for everyone. Really, great blog you have got here.    토토사이트
ava
Digital_Zone | 29.03.2022, 21:12 #
A great content material as well as great layout. Your website deserves all of the positive feedback it’s been getting. I will be back soon for further quality contents.    토토사이트
ava
Digital_Zone | 29.03.2022, 21:17 #
Really I enjoy your site with effective and useful information. It is included very nice post with a lot of our resources.thanks for share. i enjoy this post.    안전놀이터
ava
Digital_Zone | 29.03.2022, 21:21 #
Thank you because you have been willing to share information with us. we will always appreciate all you have done here because I know you are very concerned with our.    릴게임사이트
ava
Digital_Zone | 02.06.2022, 23:09 #
Superior post, keep up with this exceptional work. It's nice to know that this topic is being also covered on this web site so cheers for taking the time to discuss this! Thanks again and again!    토토사이트
ava
Digital_Zone | 02.06.2022, 23:13 #
Whenever I have some free time, I visit blogs to get some useful info. Today, I found your blog with the help of Google. Believe me; I found it one of the most informative blog.    안전놀이터
ava
Digital_Zone | 02.06.2022, 23:17 #
Wow! Such an amazing and helpful post this is. I really really love it. It's so good and so awesome. I am just amazed. I hope that you continue to do your work like this in the future also    안전놀이터
ava
Digital_Zone | 02.06.2022, 23:22 #
Only strive to mention one's content can be as incredible. This clarity with your post is superb!  Thanks a lot, hundreds of along with you should go on the pleasurable get the job done.    토토커뮤니티
ava
Digital_Zone | 02.06.2022, 23:25 #
Fabulous post, you have denoted out some fantastic points, I likewise think this s a very wonderful website. I will visit again for more quality contents and also, recommend this site to all. Thanks.    스포츠중계
ava
Digital_Zone | 02.06.2022, 23:29 #
It is truly a well-researched content and excellent wording. I got so engaged in this material that I couldn’t wait reading. I am impressed with your work and skill. Thanks.    안전토토사이트
ava
Digital_Zone | 02.06.2022, 23:33 #
We have sell some products of different custom boxes.it is very useful and very low price please visits this site thanks and please share this post with your friends.    안전놀이터
ava
Digital_Zone | 02.06.2022, 23:37 #
Thanks for the blog filled with so many information. Stopping by your blog helped me to get what I was looking for. Now my task has become as easy as ABC.    토토사이트
ava
Digital_Zone | 02.06.2022, 23:41 #
It was a very good post indeed. I thoroughly enjoyed reading it in my lunch time. Will surely come and visit this blog more often. Thanks for sharing.    토토커뮤니티
ava
Digital_Zone | 02.06.2022, 23:45 #
I high appreciate this post. It’s hard to find the good from the bad sometimes, but I think you’ve nailed it! would you mind updating your blog with more information?    먹튀검증
ava
Digital_Zone | 06.07.2022, 00:26 #
I am thankful to you for sharing this plethora of useful information. I found this resource utmost beneficial for me. Thanks a lot for hard work.    먹튀검증
ava
Digital_Zone | 06.07.2022, 00:32 #
Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I'll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon. Big thanks for the useful info.    릴게임사이트
ava
Digital_Zone | 06.07.2022, 00:36 #
This is highly informatics, crisp and clear. I think that everything has been described in systematic manner so that reader could get maximum information and learn many things.    토토사이트
 하노이가라오케 | 16.07.2022, 02:40 #
From some point on, I am preparing to build my site while browsing various sites. It is now somewhat completed. If you are interested, please come to play with 하노이가라오케
!!
 하노이가라오케 | 16.07.2022, 02:40 #
What an interesting story! I'm glad I finally found what I was looking for하노이가라오케

 Keonhacai | 28.07.2022, 02:03 #
When I read an article on this topic, Keonhacai the first thought was profound and difficult, and I wondered if others could understand..   My site has a discussion board for articles and photos similar to this topic. Could you please visit me when you have time to discuss this topic?  
 bitmain antminer L7 | 30.07.2022, 09:08 #
This is an awesome motivating article.I am practically satisfied with your great work.You put truly extremely supportive data. Keep it up. Continue blogging. Hoping to perusing your next post
bitmain antminer L7
 먹튀검증커뮤니티 | 01.08.2022, 05:34 #
Many thank you selecting the appropriate to go about this in turn, personally i think genuinely measurements along side truly revel in getting to know a touch more about the concept market. Assuming feasible, when you consider that understand mastery, on this planet could you intellect adding to ones personal running a blog website by means of manner of extra statistics? This is very useful for us. Fantastic statistics! I as of past due went over your blog and had been perusing along. I figured i would leave my first remark. I do not apprehend what to state excluding that i have.
[url=https://lunapark6.com/]먹튀검증커뮤니티
[/url]
 먹튀폴리스 | 01.08.2022, 06:20 #
   
this is a appropriate publish i visible due to provide it. It is simply what i expected to look accept as true with in future you may keep in sharing any such thoughts boggling put up . Best. This is a great writing. I have been browsing the internet for a protracted time period, but i have actually never visible this sort of notable write-up. The web content you provide is truly superb. I am curious just how you take into account this concept including this. I'm not tremendous in making such an super net content material. Please let me recognize if there's any manner. I require your help . You have got a terrific point right here! I totally agree with what you have stated!! Thank you for sharing your perspectives.


먹튀폴리스
 안전공원 | 01.08.2022, 06:24 #
you own lifted an crucial offspring.. Blesss for the usage of.. I'd need to study higher ultra-modern transactions from this blog.. Preserve posting. I am unable to study articles on line very often, however i’m satisfied i did today. That is very well written and your points are properly-expressed. Please, don’t ever stop writing. That is the splendid attitude, nonetheless is just no longer assist to make every sence by any means preaching approximately that mather . Surely i admire the effort you made to share the expertise. The topic right here i discovered was honestly effective to the subject which i used to be learning for a long term . I assume this is one of the maximum sizable information for me. 안전공원
 메이저토토사이트 | 01.08.2022, 06:31 #
you're posting a topic corresponding to mine. However i query if we are posting with professional knowledge. Given which you as well as i are publishing comparable subjects, there'll in reality be quite a few similar stories. As well as i'm able to mention you because i've a assembly of humans associated with the subject. Amazing .. Splendid .. I’ll bookmark your weblog and take the feeds also…i’m satisfied to find so many useful information here in the post, we want exercise session greater techniques in this regard, thank you for sharing.
메이저토토사이트
 카지노커뮤니티 | 01.08.2022, 06:42 #
I'll bookmark your blog and take the feeds additionally… i'm happy to find out such huge numbers of treasured information here in the put up. We need training session more techniques in such manner. A debt of gratitude is so as for sharing. Fantastic weblog! I must need to thank for the undertakings you have got made in growing this publish. I am believing a comparable pleasant work from you in a while moreover. I predicted to thank you for this locations! Thankful for sharing. Exceptional destinations! I sincerely experience genuinely reading all your weblogs. Virtually desired to inform you which you have humans like me who respect your paintings. Genuinely a first-rate post. Hats off to you! The information which you have supplied may be very beneficial. I need you to thank in your season of this amazing examine!!! I definately recognize every and each piece of it and that i have you ever bookmarked to look at new stuff of your blog an unquestionable requirement read blog!
카지노커뮤니티
 토팡 | 01.08.2022, 07:21 #
Thank you for taking the time to talk about this, i experience strongly about it and love getting to know greater in this subject matter. If feasible, as you benefit information, could you thoughts updating your blog with more records? It's miles extraordinarily helpful for me . i'm generally to running a blog i definitely respect your content. Your content material has in reality peaks my hobby. I can bookmark your website online and preserve checking for brand spanking new information. Cool publish. There’s an problem along with your website online in chrome, and you can want to check this… the browser is the marketplace leader and a very good element of people will leave out your fantastic writing because of this hassle. This is very educational content material and written nicely for a trade.
[url=https://www.blueroseinn.com/]토팡
[/url]
 안전놀이터 | 01.08.2022, 08:47 #
All of the time take care of it up! What's taking spot i am new to this, i coincidentally determined this i've determined it definitely accommodating and it has assisted me with tour masses. on the factor after i to begin with remarked i seem to have tapped on the - notify me whilst new remarks are added-checkbox and now whenever a commentary is introduced i am getting four messages with exactly the identical observation. Is there a strategies you may do away with me from that assistance? A lot obliged to you! On the factor once i take a gander at your blog internet site in opera, it looks pleasant but when establishing in internet explorer, it makes them cowl. What is as much as all, due to the fact that i am in reality excited of perusing this website online's post to be refreshed day by day. It comprises of first rate statistics.
안전놀이터
 먹튀검증 | 01.08.2022, 08:52 #
This is my first time i visit here. I discovered so many thrilling stuff for your blog specifically its dialogue. Simply its excellent article. Hold it up. I've bookmarked your website because this web site consists of valuable facts in it. I'm virtually satisfied with articles quality and presentation. Thank you lots for keeping fantastic stuff. I am very lots thankful for this web page. This submit is right sufficient to make any individual understand this notable aspect, and that i’m positive every person will appreciate this interesting things. Very informative put up ! There is lots of records right here which could assist any commercial enterprise get started with a a success social networking marketing campaign ! I've bookmarked your internet site due to the fact this website incorporates treasured statistics in it. I'm simply happy with articles nice and presentation.
먹튀검증
 안전놀이터 | 01.08.2022, 08:59 #
Keep doing top notch. I've been significance to compose something like this on my site and you've given me a notion. On the point once i first of all left a observation i seem to have tapped at the - notify me when new feedback are added-checkbox and now on every occasion a observation is delivered i am getting four messages with exactly the identical statement. Perhaps there may be a easy method you may eliminate me from that help? A good deal obliged! What i don't comprehended is certainly the way you are not in truth plenty more cleverly appreciated than you might be presently. You are savvy. You see eventually substantially as a ways as this difficulty, created me in my view envision it is some thing however a ton of various points. Its like men and women are not blanketed besides if it's one issue to do with lady crazy! Your personal stuffs awesome. All of the time control it up!


안전놀이터
 메이저놀이터순위 | 01.08.2022, 09:32 #
"The article posted was very informative and useful. I think I should also work hard for my own website like I see some good and updated working in your site. Thanks for sharing. I have read all the comments and suggestions posted by the visitors for this article are very fine. I’m satisfied with the information that you provided. I agree with your way of thinking. Thank you for sharing. Very informative blog. I will bookmark your website and check again here regularly. Thanks for sharing this informative post with us, Keep sharing it in future also.
Great Article. it's really informative and innovative keep us posted." 메이저놀이터순위
 먹튀검증 | 01.08.2022, 10:01 #
The writing fashion that you have used in this article is superb and it made the article of better excellent. Thank you a lot for this informative post . High-quality info! I latterly got here throughout your blog and were reading along. I concept i'd go away my first remark. I don’t understand what to say except that i have . That is an wonderful publish i visible thanks to percentage it. It is truely what i wanted to look wish in destiny you'll hold for sharing this kind of incredible publish. Took me time to read all the feedback, however i virtually loved the article. It proved to be very useful to me and i am certain to all of the commenters right here! It’s usually fine while you can not simplest be knowledgeable, but also entertained! It became a superb submit indeed. I thoroughly loved reading it in my lunch time. Will truly come and visit this weblog extra frequently. Thanks for sharing. I used to be just browsing thru the internet searching out a few information and got here throughout your weblog. I am inspired with the aid of the records that you have in this blog. It indicates how properly you apprehend this concern.
먹튀검증
 샌즈카지노주소 | 01.08.2022, 10:01 #
Hello mates, good article and pleasant arguments commented at this place, I am actually enjoying by these. This post is very informative on this topic. I feel strongly that love and read more on this topic. I just tripped upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog stations. Thanks for sharing. It's truly very difficult in this active life to listen news on Television, thus I simply use web for that purpose, and take the newest news. Truly, this article is really one of the very best in the history of articles. I am a antique ’Article’ collector and I sometimes read some new articles if I find them interesting. And I found this one pretty fascinating and it should go into my collection. Very good work!
샌즈카지노주소
 안전토토사이트 | 01.08.2022, 10:24 #
This is very interesting, You're an excessively professional blogger. I've joined your feed and look ahead to in search of more of your great post. Additionally, I have shared your site in my social network . I think this is a great blog. You give data to create and bolt this data. I concur with your online marketing thought completely. I am imagining another stunning article from you. Thanks, very good post. It is not easy to find a safe toto site among many toto sites. It is a trend that members' eating damage is increasing day by day. Our Safety Park Steel recommends only the Toto site, which is directly verified by members who are difficult to choose. In addition, if a splash occurs, we will compensate in full.
안전토토사이트
 먹튀검증사이트 | 01.08.2022, 10:50 #
I felt extraordinarily upbeat while perusing this web page. This become honestly highly educational website online for me. I definitely favored it. This became actually a welcoming submit. An awful lot preferred! Thanks again for all the information you distribute,right publish. I was very inquisitive about the thing, it's pretty inspiring i ought to admit. I love touring you web site since i always come upon exciting articles like this one. Amazing task, i greatly appreciate that. Do maintain sharing! Regards . Positive website, wherein did u come up with the information in this posting? I've read the various articles to your internet site now, and that i definitely like your fashion. Thank you one million and please maintain up the effective paintings. A very first rate web page.
먹튀검증사이트
 사설토토 | 01.08.2022, 11:26 #
You're making it enjoyable and you still care for to preserve it wise. I cannot wait to read a long way extra from you. That is certainly a exquisite site. I assume this is an informative post and it's miles very useful and informed. I just tripped upon your blog and ached to mention that i have without a doubt enjoyed studying your weblog post. Thanks for sharing. Thank plenty. You have got completed super task. I enjoyed your blog . Fine efforts having study this i assumed it changed into without a doubt informative. I respect you taking the time and effort to put this information collectively. I once again find myself spending a enormous quantity of time both reading and commenting. However so what, it become nonetheless really worth it! It is ideal to hear that your store is now expanding to new places. I've been a client of fantastic eyes due to all of the high-quality work that you men do . Hope that this growth pass of yours will emerge as successful. I'm able to absolutely move and spot this new keep of yours .
사설토토
 메리트카지노 | 01.08.2022, 11:45 #
wonderful weblog. I extremely joyful in perusing your articles. That is in reality an high-quality perused for me. I have bookmarked it and i'm awaiting perusing new articles. Preserve doing fantastic! There is a lot in this text that i'd in no way have thought of on my own. Your content material gives readers things to reflect onconsideration on in an thrilling manner. Awesome article. Captivating to read. I love to examine such an outstanding article. Thanks! It has made my task more and extra easy. Maintain rocking. Very thrilling records, well worth recommending. But, i recommend this first-class data, valuable and great layout, as share suitable stuff with proper ideas and concepts, lots of extraordinary information and notion, both of which i want, way to provide the sort of beneficial information here. Thanks for your article! I've read thru some similar subjects!
메리트카지노
 먹튀 | 01.08.2022, 11:54 #
Nice post. I learn something new and challenging on sites I stumbleupon everyday. It will always be useful to read through content from other authors and use a little something from other sites . That is really fascinating, You're an overly professional blogger. I have joined your feed and look ahead to in the hunt for more of your fantastic post. Also, I have shared your web site in my social networks . I found your blog using msn. This is a really well written article. I will be sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I'll certainly return. You're amazing! Thanks!

먹튀
 먹튀검증 | 01.08.2022, 11:59 #
Extraordinary info! I lately came across your blog and have been analyzing alongside. I notion i might depart my first remark. I don’t realize what to say except that i have. I found your this post at the same time as taking a gander at for some related information on blog seek... It is a now not all that horrendous put up.. Hold posting and invigorate the information. I’m positive it's miles the maximum critical data for me personally. And i'm glad studying your article. However ought to observation on few general matters, your website fashion is right, the articles certainly is brilliant . Hello right writing and exact snap shots. We desire you a happy and healthful new yr 2021. I would like a whole lot of suitable posts in the future. Neat submit. There may be an issue in conjunction with your internet site in internet explorer, may check this¡ok ie nonetheless is the marketplace chief and a massive segment of people will pass over your extremely good writing due to this hassle.
먹튀검증
 온라인카지노 | 01.08.2022, 12:09 #
Extraordinary info! I lately came across [list]
[*] your blog and have been analyzing alongside. I notion i might depart my first remark. I don’t realize what to say except that i have. I found your this post at the same time as taking a gander at for some related information on blog seek... It is a now not all that horrendous put up.. Hold posting and invigorate the information. I’m positive it's miles the maximum critical data for me personally. And i'm glad studying your article. However ought to observation on few general matters, your website fashion is right, the articles certainly is brilliant . Hello right writing and exact snap shots. We desire you a happy and healthful new yr 2021. I would like a whole lot of suitable posts in the future. Neat submit. There may be an issue in conjunction with your internet site in internet explorer, may check this¡ok ie nonetheless is the marketplace chief and a massive segment of people will pass over your extremely good writing due to this hassle.
[/list    <a href="https://casinocorps.com/">온라인카지노</a>
 안전놀이터 | 01.08.2022, 12:59 #
You cannot be uninvolved that will help you a whole lot of those conflicts. It weblog post presents thoughts or even innovative principles. Extraordinarily insightful and even useful. After analyzing your article i was amazed. I realize that you provide an explanation for it very well. And i wish that other readers may even revel in how i sense after analyzing your article. Better than common records, gainful and sensational framework, as offer nicely finished with intelligent contemplations and thoughts, clusters of wonderful facts and inspiration, each of which i require, by means of distinctive feature of provide such an obliging statistics here. You've got lifted a primary offspring.. Blesss for the usage of.. I would want to consider higher most current exchanges from this blog.. Maintain posting.. I feel extraordinarily pleased to have seen your website online page and assume this sort of huge quantity of all the extra engaging circumstances perusing here. An awful lot appreciated over again for each one of the factors of hobby. We are definitely thankful for your weblog publish.
[url=https://www.totomart365.com/]안전놀이터
[/url]
 카지노가입쿠폰 | 01.08.2022, 13:12 #
Hold posting and invigorate the information. Fidesires! Fairly beneficial publish ! There may be a widespread measure of statistics right here which can allow any commercial enterprise initially a fruitful lengthy range casual conversation marketing campaign!
카지노가입쿠폰
 토토사이트 | 01.08.2022, 13:42 #
Those varieties of leisure video games were no longer that sensible when the actual idea become first getting used. Much like other types of technological innovation, video games way too have needed to grow by using many ages. This itself is testimony closer to the fast boom and development of video video games . I am happy to be a visitor of this arrant site ! , appreciate it for this rare info ! There's a lot in this text that i would never have thought of by myself. Your content material gives readers things to consider in an interesting way. Such web sites are important due to the fact they provide a massive dose of beneficial data . Thank you with regard to publishing this kind of high-quality submit! I found your web page best for my personal necessities. It has incredible in addition to beneficial articles. Keep the tremendous function! I am usually to blogging and i also in reality respect your website content continuously. Your content has in reality peaks my hobby.
토토사이트
 카지노사이트 | 01.08.2022, 13:59 #
Maintain the great do the job, onspecting scrutinizing new articles. Continue doing extraordinary! Appropriate put up. Thanks for sharing with us. I simply loved your manner of presentation. I loved studying this . Thanks for sharing and maintain writing. It is good to examine blogs like this. I think this is one of the most giant information for me. And i’m satisfied studying your article. However have to remark on a few widespread matters, the net web page fashion is perfect, the articles is sincerely fantastic :
카지노사이트
 토토사이트 | 01.08.2022, 14:00 #
The writing fashion that you have used in this article is superb and it made the article of better excellent. Thank you a lot for this informative post . High-quality info! I latterly got here throughout your blog and were reading along. I concept i'd go away my first remark. I don’t understand what to say except that i have . That is an wonderful publish i visible thanks to percentage it. It is truely what i wanted to look wish in destiny you'll hold for sharing this kind of incredible publish. Took me time to read all the feedback, however i virtually loved the article. It proved to be very useful to me and i am certain to all of the commenters right here! It’s usually fine while you can not simplest be knowledgeable, but also entertained! It became a superb submit indeed. I thoroughly loved reading it in my lunch time. Will truly come and visit this weblog extra frequently. Thanks for sharing. I used to be just browsing thru the internet searching out a few information and got here throughout your weblog. I am inspired with the aid of the records that you have in this blog. It indicates how properly you apprehend this concern. 토토사이트
 바카라사이트 | 01.08.2022, 14:05 #
You provide very useful data. This post gives me lots of advise it is very useful for me. It helps me very much to solve some problems. Thanks for sharing. Very informative article. Such an amazing and helpful post. I hope that you continue to do your work like this in the future also. Thanks for sharing. I value this article for the well-researched web content and outstanding wording. I obtained so curious about this product that I couldn't quit reviewing. Your blog site is actually outstanding. I just wanted to give you a heads up! I think your blog may be having internet browser compatibility issues. I must say we should have an online discussion on this. Thanks for participating with us a piece of great information that is actually helpful.
바카라사이트
 먹튀검증 | 01.08.2022, 14:06 #
What i don't understood is if truth be told how you're now not actually a lot more neatly-liked than you might be right now. You're so intelligent. You already know thus significantly on the subject of this matter, made me individually consider it from so many varied angles. Its like women and men don't seem to be interested except it is one thing to accomplish with Woman gaga! Your individual stuffs nice. At all times maintain it up! Interesting post. I Have Been wondering about this issue, so thanks for posting. Pretty cool post.It 's really very nice and Useful post.Thanks . Actually impressed! Everything is very open as well as extremely clear information of concerns. It contains true truths. Your internet site is extremely useful. Many thanks for sharing.
먹튀검증
 메이저사이트 | 01.08.2022, 15:04 #
Wow! This can be one particular of the most beneficial blogs We’ve ever arrive across on this subject. Basically Wonderful. I’m also a specialist in this topic so I can understand your effort. It’s rare knowledgeable men and women for this topic, but the truth is be understood as you know what you are discussing! Thanks . Great Article it its really informative and innovative keep us posted with new updates. its was really valuable. thanks a lot. I really enjoyed reading this post, big fan. Keep up the good work andplease tell me when can you publish more articles or where can I read more on the subject?
메이저사이트
 먹튀조회 | 01.08.2022, 15:09 #
This post gives truly quality information. I am already done it and find that this post is really amazing. Thank you for this brief explanation and very nice information. Keep up the good works. Favorable website, where did u develop the info on this posting? I have actually read a few of the write-ups on your internet site now, and I truly like your design. Many thanks a million as well as please maintain the effective job. You provide very useful data. This post gives me lots of advise it is very useful for me. It helps me very much to solve some problems. Thanks for sharing. I love what you guys are up too. Such clever work and exposure! Keep up the very good works guys .
[url=https://meogtwihero.com/]먹튀조회
[/url]
 메이저사이트 | 01.08.2022, 15:14 #
Wow, what a great put up. I virtually discovered this to tons informatics. It's miles what i was searching for. I would love to indicate you that please preserve sharing such form of info. Thanks . I am usually searching at the net down articles that can assist me. There is without a doubt a brilliant deal to think about this. I assume you made some first rate focuses in functions too. Continue working, high-quality process . Superb hints and very easy to understand. This can certainly be very useful for me while i get a chance to begin my blog. Correct writing and appropriate photographs. We desire you a satisfied and healthy new 12 months 2021. I would love a whole lot of suitable posts within the future. I can subscribe. If you have time. I am nevertheless studying of your stuff, and i am attempting to achieve my goals. I absolutely adore analyzing thru all that is written on your internet site. Maintain the actual ideas arriving for long term ! Thanks !

메이저사이트
 토토사이트 | 01.08.2022, 15:30 #
Examine my blog and get those skins at no cost. Enjoy this blog. This is my first time i visit right here. I found such a lot of exciting stuff on your weblog, specially its dialogue. 토토사이트

 검증된놀이터 | 01.08.2022, 16:13 #
right right here is the proper weblog for all and sundry who desires to understand this topic. So much its nearly hard to argue with you (now not that i simply will want to…haha). You actually put a fresh spin on a topic which has been mentioned for a long time. Extremely good stuff, simply tremendous! Howdy! This post couldn’t be written any better! Analyzing via this put up reminds me of my previous roommate! He continuously kept speakme approximately this. I maximum surely will send this information to him. Quite sure he's going to have a very good read. Thanks for sharing! Hey! Do you use twitter? I would like to comply with you if that might be k. I'm surely enjoying your weblog and stay up for new updates. Precise submit. I analyze something definitely new and difficult on blogs i stumbleupon every day. It's always exciting to study content material from other writers and exercise a touch something from different web sites.
검증된놀이터
 casinosite | 13.08.2022, 09:23 #
Your explanation is organized very easy to understand!!! I understood at once. Could you please post about casinosite
?? Please!!
 baccaratcommunity | 15.08.2022, 07:41 #
Your explanation is organized very easy to understand!!! I understood at once. Could you please post about baccaratcommunity ?? Please!!
Ваши данные: *  
Имя:

Комментарий: *  
Прикрепить файл  
 


Оценки
[-]
Group 1 Добавить

zagluwka
advanced
Отправить
На главную
Beta