Arbeitgeber и Arbeitnehmer, а между ними отношения. Производственные!

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Arbeitgeber и Arbeitnehmer, а между ними отношения. Производственные!  

Производственные отношения между работодателем и наемным работником регулируются индивидуальным трудовым договором. Этот договор должен содержать положения, которые соответствуют установленным законам о труде, тарифному соглашению или коллективному договору соответствующего предприятия.

 

Работа определяет жизнь миллионов наемных работников и их семей и гарантирует им существование. В свою очередь осуществление работы нуждается в определенных правилах, которые были бы обязательны как для работодателя, так и для наемного работника.

 

Срок действия трудового договора

 

Как правило, трудовой договор заключается на неопределенное время, однако он может быть заключен и на ограниченный срок. С 1 января 2001 года вступил в силу Закон о неполной занятости (Teilzeitbefristungsgesetz – TZBG), который регулирует вопросы допустимости работы на неполную ставку, содержания трудового договора в этом случае и окончания ограниченных по сроку трудовых отношений. Этот закон отменяет действие ранее существовавшего о содействии занятости. Ограничение срока действия трудового договора допустимо только при договоренности в письменной форме и может быть обусловлено либо временными обстоятельствами, достижением конкретной цели либо трудовыми возможностями работника. Такой трудовой договор расторгается без осуществления предусмотренной трудовым законодательством процедуры увольнения. Основными причинами заключения ограниченного по сроку, т.е. временного трудового договора являются (§ 14 TZBG):

  • временная потребность предприятия в рабочей силе;
  • потребность наемного работника в свободном времени для получения требуемого образования, переобучения, повышения квалификации;
  • необходимость в замещении временно отсутствующего на данном рабочем месте работника (например, при болезни, беременности, уходе за грудным или малолетним ребенком, призыве на военную или альтернативную службу, учебе, трудовом отпуске);
  • прием на временную работу в порядке прохождения испытательного срока;
  • оплата труда работника осуществляется из бюджетных средств, выделяемых на ограниченный срок для выполнения какого-либо проекта, исследования.

 Временный договор может также заключаться на основании особых законоположений, например, согласно закону о выплате пособия по воспитанию ребенка, закону об общих принципах организации высшей школы или закону о переуступке наемного работника другому работодателю.

 Согласно § 14 TZBG допустимо ограничение трудового договора на срок до двух лет, включая не более чем трехразовое его продление, без какой-либо предметной причины. Это исключение предусмотрено для т.н. «свежеиспеченных» фирм. В первые четыре года своей деятельности предприниматели имеют право заключать ограниченные по времени трудовые договоры сроком до двух лет без весомых причин. При этом с работниками старше 52 лет можно заключать временный договор безо всяких предметных оснований, причем на любой по продолжительности срок, и продлевать его столько раз, сколько это необходимо. Единственное ограничение состоит в том, что между ранее существовавшим неограниченным по сроку договором и вновь заключаемым временным договором лежал интервал в 6 месяцев.

 Неправомочное ограничение в договоре срока его действия ведет к неограниченным трудовым отношениям. То же происходит и тогда, когда, несмотря на ограничение срока действия договора, трудовые отношения по каким-либо причинам продолжаются, а работодатель немедленно не возразил против этого и не сообщил об этом работнику (§ 15 TZBG). В правовом отношении нет разницы между наемным работником, который трудится согласно временному договору, и работником, договор с которым не ограничен по сроку.

 

Испытательный срок

 

 Продолжительность испытательного периода составляет не более 6 месяцев (чаще всего 3 месяца), в ходе которого можно расторгнуть трудовые отношения в течение двух недель (§ 622 Abs. 3 BGB – Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch). Дело в том, что в период первых 6 месяцев работы не действуют положения закона о защите от необоснованного увольнения. Возможна также договоренность о том, чтобы испытательный период считать трудовыми отношениями с ограниченным сроком действия. Однако тарифное соглашение или коллективный договор могут исключить такую возможность.

По истечении испытательного срока трудовые отношения (если не объявлено об увольнении или ничего другого не согласовано в договоре) автоматически устанавливаются в качестве неограниченных во времени со сроком увольнения, обусловленным соответствующим законом или тарифным соглашением. Многие тарифные соглашения предусматривают более короткий испытательный срок, причем в период испытательного срока может быть согласован в трудовом договоре более краткий срок увольнения. Рекомендуется, по возможности, ясно сформулировать в договоре цель прохождения испытательного срока и предусмотреть в течение этого периода регулярные личные беседы с руководителем или куратором. В принципе возможен в договоре даже отказ от прохождения испытательного срока.

 

Изменение содержания трудового договора

 

 Изменения обычно касаются тех условий трудового договора, которые связаны либо с оплатой труда, либо с местом или режимом работы. При ухудшении экономического положения предприятия фирмы работодатель иногда вынужден предложить своим работникам согласиться с уменьшением в дальнейшем их заработка. При несогласии работника на такое изменение размера заработка трудовые отношения с ним расторгаются. Аналогичные последствия для работника возникают после предложения работодателя изменить место работы (например, согласиться на переход на другое предприятие данной фирмы, возможно даже в другом городе, если занимаемое работником в настоящее время рабочее место подлежит упразднению вследствие реконструкции). И в том, и в другом случае работодатель объявляет работнику предупреждение или передает уведомление (Änderungskündigung), которое состоит из двух частей: предложения об изменении каких-либо условий трудового договора через определенный период времени и предупреждения о расторжении трудовых отношений при несогласии наемного работника с этими изменениями после истечения этого периода. Конечно, для такого предупреждения у работодателя всегда должны быть веские причины (за исключением, когда работник трудится на предприятии менее 6 месяцев или само предприятие очень мелкое, с числом занятых на нем менее 6 человек). Причем не обязательно производственно-экономического характера, но обусловленные поведением или личными качествами наемного работника. Например, работник плохо работает, нарушает свои трудовые обязанности или часто болеет. Очевидно, такое предупреждение с определенным предложением лучше, чем без него. Другое дело, что работодатель должен прежде рассмотреть все другие возможности, которые позволили бы сохранить на прежнем уровне заработок работника или его место работы. И кроме того, сам работник не должен возражать против такого т.н. «удешевления» его рабочей силы, считать это справедливым. Причем предложенное работодателем изменение какого-либо условия трудового договора должно соответствовать причине этого изменения, а не просто обеспечивать снижение производственных издержек. Наконец, такое предложение не должно нарушать установленные законом запреты на увольнение наемного работника, например при беременности, инвалидности и в других случаях. В любом случае свое согласие и несогласие на изменение соответствующих положений трудового договора работник должен выразить в течение трех недель, что необходимо для действия нового договора. Причем работник может даже согласиться, но с условием оставления за собой права в судебном порядке перепроверить законность изменения трудового договора.

 

Расторжение трудового договора

 

Наемный работник может по собственной инициативе расторгнуть с работодателем трудовые отношения (§ 623 BGB). Для этого он должен в письменной форме подать заявление своему работодателю, в котором ему совсем не обязательно объяснять причины его ухода с работы. Но сделать это он должен заблаговременно, с учетом соответствующих положений трудового договора.

В большинстве случаев трудовой договор заключается на неограниченный срок, т.е. без указания срока прекращения трудовых отношений. Однако в ряде случаев этот срок твердо устанавливается. В этих случаях по истечении срока действия трудового договора трудовые отношения автоматически прекращаются без увольнения работника. Но если работодатель собирается уволить наемного работника, с которым был заключен бессрочный трудовой договор, то он обязан заблаговременно предупредить его о своем решении (не менее чем за три недели до принятия и доведения до увольняемого работника этого решения) согласно § 622 BGB. При этом в данном параграфе закона указываются нормальные сроки для расторжения трудового договора. Так, при работе на предприятии два и более года срок увольнения составляет один месяц к концу календарного месяца. Для проработавших 10 и более лет – 4 месяца к концу соответствующего календарного месяца. Только в исключительных случаях при наличии серьезных на то оснований, связанных с поведением работника, возможно увольнение без предупреждения (Abmahnung). Но при этом работодатель должен был ранее вынести работнику (объявить распоряжением или приказом по предприятию или устно в присутствии его непосредственного начальника) предупреждение о недопустимости его поведения (часто даже и не одно).

Достижение работником пенсионного возраста еще не означает автоматическое прекращение трудовых отношений. Эти отношения прекращаются без увольнения только тогда, когда это установлено в индивидуальном трудовом договоре работника.

Для защиты наемного работника от необоснованного увольнения, с одной стороны, и для предоставления работодателю возможностей увольнения работника в определенных случаях при наличии бессрочного трудового договора или ранее предусмотренного трудовым договором срока работы, с другой стороны, существует соответствующий закон (Kündigungsschutzgesetz – KSchG). Этот закон устанавливает основания для увольнения как с предварительным предупреждением, т.е. согласно общему порядку (ordentliche Kündigung), так и для увольнения без предупреждения, т.е. согласно особому порядку или для экстраординарного увольнения (fristlose Kündigung), а также сроки и процедурные моменты увольнения. Однако надо помнить, что этот закон не распространяется на очень мелкие предприятия, фирмы с числом занятых на них 9 человек и менее.

                                                                                                                                             Семен Вадимов


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Дата публикации: 02.08.2011
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