О дружеской бескорыстной помощи

Содержание
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Дружеская помощь нередко оказывается медвежьей услугой

Люди иногда помогают друг другу. Но бескорыстная помощь порой может обернуться убытками для обеих сторон. Что нужно знать о такой помощи, дабы она на поверку не оказалась медвежьей услугой?

Перетаскать мебель при переезде, покормить домашних животных в отсутствие хозяев, отвезти машину в мастерскую, помочь проложить кабель или раскроить ковровое покрытие. Хорошо, когда есть друзья и приятели, без раздумий и бесплатно готовые поддержать в сложные минуты или в выполнении дорогостоящих проектов. Благодаря ним и работа спорится, и экономия существенная. До поры до времени…

Почему? Да потому, что кто будет платить, если старинный буфет уронят, у породистой кошки начнётся несварение от не той пищи, на ковре появится пятно? Или электрик-любитель вызовет короткое замыкание во всём доме и придётся вызывать на подмогу уже настоящую службу за немалые деньги? Тут-то приятели обычно и сдуваются, вовсе не стремясь за свои же бескорыстные порывы расплачиваться собственными деньгами. С другой стороны, у тех, кому помогали, часто тоже язык не поворачивается требовать компенсацию за неудачную попытку. И ладно, если речь идёт о мелочи, на которую можно махнуть рукой, но что если невольно причинён существенный ущерб?

B общем и целом, по закону ответственность за любой ущерб несёт тот, кто его причинил. Но как раз в случае с дружеской помощью всё далеко не так просто. Если в основе лежит договорённость об оказании бескорыстной услуги по знакомству, законодательство автоматически исходит из того, что стороны исключили взаимную ответственность друг друга (stillschweigender Haftungsausschluss). Хотя не помешает – особенно перед выполнением каких-либо сложных или рискованных работ – заключить указанную договорённость и письменно (в будущем такой документ скорее поможет сохранению хороших отношений, несмотря ни на что).

Исключением является лишь грубое пренебрежение безопасностью или же намеренное вредительство – например, если кошке в корм будет подсыпано удобрение для цветов. Тогда, конечно, отвечать придётся.

К слову, понятие дружеской услуги действительно часто даже в тех ситуациях, когда подразумевается небольшое (впрочем, в имеющихся прецедентах достигающее 200 евро!) денежное или иное вознаграждение за помощь, которая, однако, остаётся в добровольно-любительских рамках.

Большую роль играет наличие у помощника договора страхования ответственности перед третьими лицами (Haftpflichtversicherung). Если её нет, то требовать возмещения напрямую у неудачливого альтруиста не получится, все убытки придётся нести самому желавшему сэкономить на специалистах. По умолчанию суды исходят из того, что просящий помощи не собирается взваливать ответственность за возможный нечаянный ущерб на оказывающего эту помощь.

Если же страхование гражданской ответственности имеется, возможны варианты. Вообще-то страховка должна покрыть ущерб, причинённый по лёгкой или даже грубой халатности. Но существуют договоры и тарифы, где мелким шрифтом исключается возмещение как раз в случаях оказания дружеских услуг (Gefälligkeitsschäden). Об этом стоит знать заранее, внимательно прочитав свой договор со страховой компанией.

Рассмотрим на примерах, что и как именно расценивают суды в качестве действий, осуществлённых в рамках дружеской любезности:

  • Если подружке дают «покататься» автомобиль, то, став виновницей аварии, она не будет отвечать материально за перевод владельца машины в более низкую страховую категорию (хотя его убыток при этом может составить 1500−2000 евро).
  • Споткнувшись, уронив на пол и сильно повредив дорогой компьютер, добровольный помощник при переезде не должен оплачивать его стоимость.
  • Перетаскивание 52-килограммового телевизора на четвёртый этаж в одиночку считается грубой халатностью. Кто уронил, тот и платит за ущерб.
  • Выскользнувшая из рук бесплатного сборщика мебели тяжёлая деталь причиняет повреждения стоящему рядом ребёнку хозяйки. Сборщик не виноват.
  • Наверное, самый распространённый вид помощи – при организации домашних вечеринок. Так вот: даже если кастрюля с фондю перевернётся на персидский ковёр и испортит его навечно, платить за это виновник не должен.
  • Сел автомобильный аккумулятор, но добрый самаритянин по соседству готов помочь своим? Если он в порыве любезности перепутает полюса и причинит тем самым ущерб взывавшему к помощи, отвечать ему не придётся.
  • Дал покататься на своей лошади, а наездник свалился? Возможно, что хозяину придётся оплачивать лечение горе-ездока, но лишь в том случае, если доказана вина… лошади.

Согласно условиям полисов страхования ответственности перед третьими лицами, профессиональные риски не покрываются страховкой. Но что считать профессиональным риском? Как быть с пенсионером, за символическую сумму (менее 100 евро в месяц) подрабатывающим завхозом в школе тенниса? Поскольку, несмотря на мизерную оплату, он застрахован от несчастного случая на рабочем месте и получает расчётные ведомости, такую деятельность нельзя отнести к добровольной помощи или хобби. То есть произведённый им в процессе трудовой деятельности ущерб обычной частной страховкой компенсироваться не будет.

Напомним: хотя многие не имеют страховки ответственности перед третьими лицам, она относится к практически обязательной для каждого (а в отношении водителей – к обязательной). Случись что, без страховки человек будет отвечать за причинённый им ущерб всем своим имуществом и всеми будущими доходами, за исключением прожиточного минимума.


Об авторе
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Автор: Газета "Русская Германия"

Источник: rg-rb.de

Добавил:   venjamin.tolstonog


Дата публикации: 21.05.2018. Просмотров: 670

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