Ловушка для бизнесменов

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Ловушка для бизнесменов  

Карьеры предпринимателей порой начинаются с того, что несколько друзей, собравшись и хорошенько «посидев», решают заняться «чем-нибудь» или даже чем-нибудь конкретным в плане бизнеса. Приняв это решение, компаньоны затем более или менее успешно начинают воплощать возникшую у них идею в жизнь, часто и не подозревая о возможных и далеко идущих последствиях этой самой совместной деятельности. В действительности же закон исходит от создания в таких случаях так называемого GbR – Gesellschaft bürgerlichen Rechts, то есть общества гражданского права. А именно, уже при наличии двух человек, принявших решение совместно заниматься бизнесом и преследовать общие экономические цели, согласно закону возникает эта самая GbR. Примером для такого рода обществ являются, например, совместные практики врачей или адвокатов или архитекторов, а также любые другие совместные начинания типа ресторанов и т.д., в которых двое или более человек преследуют общие экономические цели. Доходы и расходы в таких обществах делятся равными частями на всех участников. Не важно при этом, заключили ли партнеры соответствующий письменный договор или просто так работают вместе.

Это общество не является обществом капитала, как, например, общество с ограниченной ответственностью (GmbH) или акционерное общество (AG), являющееся юридическим лицом и отвечающее за долги, сделанные пайщиками или, вернее сказать, директором общества от имени последнего только своим «личным», притом ограниченным размером уставного капитала имуществом. GbR является объединением физических лиц для достижения общей экономической цели, не имеющим собственной «личности» и с ничем не ограниченной ответственностью участвующих лиц. Бывает и так, что один из «соучастников» присоединяется к «компании» после того, как она уже какое-то время действовала, и не подозревая, что таким образом он в соответствии с новейшими решениями высшего федерального суда Германии «вешает» себе на шею долги своих компаньонов. Причем эти долги явились результатом предыдущей деятельности общества, но, тем не менее, и он теперь отвечает всем своим имеющимся личным имуществом за эти самые долги.  И не важно, знал ли последний о существовании и размере долговых обязательств и о времени их возникновения. Например, требования налоговой инспекции по налоговым выплатам или задолженности, или требования заработной платы наемных работников, или выплаты по текущим лизингам или арендной платы за оборудование и/или помещение, или соответствующим задолженностям и т.д. Практически это означает следующее: «присоединяясь» к деятельности какого-то лица или начиная действовать с кем-то вместе, вы берете на себя экономическую ответственность за деятельность этого лица и его ошибки. То есть практически можно лишиться совершенно даже последней рубашки, опрометчиво «влез» в какое-нибудь «содружество».
В принципе, конечно, возможно путем заключения соответствующего договора членов компании исключить ответственность  вновь вступившего члена «компании» за старые долги, но, к сожалению, договор этот действует только по отношению к сотоварищам и не имеет ровно никакой силы по отношению ко всему остальному окружающему миру. То есть, даже при наличии такого договора вы будете отвечать своим личным имуществом за общие долги, и часто только иллюзорная возможность так называемого регресса, то есть предъявления финансовых претензий к «подельникам» в соответствии с вышеупомянутым договором, совершенно никакого материального удовлетворения не принесет, по причине того, что у него (них) скорее всего к тому времени уже ничего не будет, а к голому, как известно, в карман не залезешь. Таким образом, существует реальная опасность платить чужие долги без возможности получить компенсацию. На встающий, таким образом, во всей остроте классический российский вопрос «что делать?» можно ответить с римской прямотой: думать перед началом деятельности. Еще неплохо бывает проверить имущественное положение общества в момент вступления в него. Причем даже актуально высокие обороты или (лучше сказать – и в особенности) «богатые» офисы и прочая мишура не являются гарантией процветания фирмы и высоких доходов. В таких случаях реально покажет ситуацию только проверка всей документации фирмы, а именно: отчетности за все время существования того или иного «содружества», которая обязательно содержит сведения о долговых обязательствах, возможных судебных разбирательствах. Желательна также и проверка имущественного положения партнеров. Так как непрофессионалу это все сделать довольно затруднительно, рекомендуется подключить специалиста. Предпочтительнее, конечно, вообще отказаться от такой формы организации бизнеса и организовать общество капитала – GmbH, AG, GmbH & KG, чтобы исключить ответственность своим личным имуществом. Эти формы организации требуют начального капитала, но зато исключают личную ответственность. Кроме того, сейчас и в Германии появилась возможность создания юридического лица без наличия значительного капитала, то есть необходимость организации какой-нибудь английской Ltd совершенно отпала, и в Германии можно основать общество с ограниченной ответственностью с уставным капиталом всего в один евро. Помощь компетентного лица обезопасит от неприятных и далеко идущих неожиданностей при начале своего бизнеса.                                                                                             

                                                                                           Helene Kapp, газета «Карьера» (№ 48, 2/2010)


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Дата публикации: 19.05.2011
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