Борьба с незаконной трудовой деятельностью

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Борьба с незаконной трудовой деятельностью  

В настоящее время пока еще не удается существенно снизить объем работ «по-черному» и нелегальной трудовой занятости

 

Причин тому много: стремление скрыть свой дополнительный заработок одних и пренебрежение к существующим законам других, преднамеренная эксплуатация наемных работников и желание добиться максимизации прибыли любой ценой. Однако тот, кто работает «по-черному» или нелегально, поступает вопреки существующему общественному порядку. Следовательно, необходимо усилить контроль таможенного ведомства страны в отраслях экономики, в которых к такой работе прибегают особенно часто.

   В 2008 году федеральное правительство разработало программу действий по обеспечению правового порядка на рынке труда ("Aktionsprogramm für Recht und Ordnung auf dem Arbeitsmarkt").  Согласно этой программе в качестве одной из мер предлагается наемным работникам, занятым в этих отраслях экономики, постоянно во время работы иметь при себе свой паспорт или удостоверение личности, о чем работодатель должен в категорической форме потребовать от своих сотрудников. Признано больше недостаточным иметь при себе водительские права или документ о социальном страховании, т.к. эти документы не позволяют обнаружить обман. Работодатель в указанных отраслях экономики обязан немедленно после трудоустройства наемного работника (еще до начисления ему заработка) зарегистрировать его в ведомстве пенсионного страхования (для предотвращения использования работника в течение краткого времени – всего нескольких дней). Одновременно с этим местные службы прописки должны адреса проживания немедленно сообщать ведомству пенсионного страхования.  

Многочисленные предложения по борьбе с работой «по-черному» и нелегальной трудовой занятостью уже неоднократно вносили и профсоюзы страны. Среди них обязательная тарификация заработной платы и установление во всех отраслях экономики минимального размера оплаты труда (МРОТ). По мнению немецких профсоюзов и СДПГ, минимальный размер оплаты труда - МРОТ в Германии должен составлять не менее 7,50 евро в час. Сегодня менее 7,50 евро зарабатывает каждый пятый наемный работник на востоке страны и каждый двенадцатый на западе – всего примерно 2 млн. человек, работающих на полную ставку. При этом число низкооплачиваемых наемных работников в стране неуклонно растет. По данным федерального министерства труда и социальных вопросов, в низкотарифном секторе трудятся 18,4% наемных работников, платящих социальные отчисления, или примерно 3,6 млн. человек, 70% которых составляют женщины.

  . В 2009 году федеральное таможенное ведомство провело 118 тысяч контрольных проверок на фирмах и предприятиях страны и выявило 75 тысяч нарушений законодательства о труде и уплате налогов и взносов. Но для того, чтобы эта работа велась более успешно, необходима широкая общественная поддержка, а также участие профсоюзов страны в борьбе с нелегальной трудовой занятостью (illegale Beschäftigung). Поэтому радует тот факт, что к профсоюзам в строительной индустрии и в отрасли материально-технического снабжения и организации транспортных перевозок в 2009 году к борьбе с нелегальной работой присоединились профсоюзы в мясной промышленности и предприятий общественного питания. Не последнее место в этой борьбе отводится и контролю соблюдения минимального уровня оплаты труда - МРОТ на тех предприятиях, где он установлен в законодательном порядке. Так, в 2009 году на предприятиях строительной отрасли и отрасли проведения уборочных работ в зданиях было проведено 22 тысячи контрольных проверок и выявлено 2.600 нарушений положения о минимальной заработной плате.

Для того чтобы сократить число нелегально трудящихся, профессор экономики университета в Линце Фридрих Шнайдер советует правительству Германии повысить общую сумму расходов на услуги по домашнему хозяйству, которую можно списать с налогов при подаче налоговой декларации, с нынешних 1.200 евро до 2.000 евро за год. В то же время повышение налога на добавленную стоимость профессор Шнайдер подверг резкой критике. "В результате последнего повышения НДС до 19 процентов, число людей, которые нелегально заняты, резко возросло", - считает профессор Шнайдер.

                                                                                                                                                 Семен Вадимов


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